The problem of equipping modern buses with effective power units today in Russia is solved finally and irrevocable. But for this I had to go through a huge path of more than three decades.
Today, it is strangely perceived by the fact that in the country where the emphasis was placed on the development of public transport, and not personal cars, there was no powerful, efficient and economical engine. Surely, this «jamb» could be attributed to the costs and disadvantages of the planned economy.
As you know, the largest manufacturer of city buses in the USSR was Likinsky plant in the Moscow region. So, on his first urban model of the LIAZ-158 bus, which appeared at the end of the 50s of the last century, a low-power gasoline unit ZIL-158 was established, which develops capacity of 109 hp. Today’s mass cars are the same power indicators.
And on the next model of the city bus LIAZ-677, known as the «Lunohod», also used ZIL-375 gasoline unit with power characteristics in 180 hp. Those who older remember how hard these buses were overcamed lifts.
To radically solve the problem of the modern diesel engine was assigned to the Kamsky Automobile Plant. In the main areas of development of the national economy, 10th a five-year plan was recorded — to build a plant for the production of trucks by 150 thousand pieces and diesel engines by 250 thousand pieces. That is, the use of stone diesel engines was laid for the bus industry.
However, it is impossible to say that Russian drivers were not familiar with diesel engines. The Bratsk Hungarian People’s Republic in the framework of the Council of Economic Communications was supplied buses Ikarus (Ikarus) Series 200, equipped with a diesel engine Raba-Man, in two versions: for the Solo buses 192 hp, and for the Harmonica Ikarus-280 — 220 l. with.
But the first domestic city bus has become a high populated
But Yamz-236 was supplied for quite a long time for installation on LIAZ-5256. As you know, in the early 90s, a serious fire occurred on the motor production of KamAZ, all the equipment burned out, and although the production was restored, the search for an alternative motor did not end. Cummins 6 ISBE 245B, CATERPILLAR 3116, MAN D 0836, and of course, YMZ-236, which were supplied to Liaz were adapted.
Today, the Russian bus industry has developed a steady distribution of grades of power units. So, in the GAZ group, which included
Uncontinative dizel yam 530
If a recently, Likinsky bus plant specialized in the release of only large capacity buses, the market realities of the Russian Federation were forced to supplement the range of passenger technology produced. In addition to large urban 12-meter buses, here in the first decade of the current century was
A rival Liaza is a similar diversification of the model range of buses and a competitor of Liaza — Neftekamsky plant, first made a bet on the large city bus NEFAZ-5299, and now expanding its model range. Our canal
As we have already noted above, today the issue of equipping the domestic bus technology with modern diesel engines has been removed from the agenda. The bright example of this YAMZ engines installed by the Gas Group bus division.
On city buses models
On the Middle Class LIAZ-4292 bus and Pavlovsky vector set the 4-cylinder YAMZ-534 diesel engine, which has several settings: 170 hp and 210 hp
In the six-cylinder YAMZ-536, the operating volume is 6.65 liters, and YAMZ 534 — 4.43 liters. Motors have pig-iron blocks with interchangeable «wet» sleeves, double sealing rubber rings installed in the grooves of the bottom of the block. Replace the sleeve in case of repair simply — you can even pull it out with a screwdriver. The block of the block is made in common to all cylinders, which undoubtedly enhances the strength characteristics of the unit. Motors of the YAMZ-530 family are not prone to overheating. Here, the cooling fluid circulation is made: water goes from top to bottom, that is, from the head into the cylinder block, which prevents the occurrence of cracks in the most thermally loaded zones. The radiator is located in the stern, on the left side — is well purged, and a hydraulic transmission is used for its drive. This design is widely used on European buses. On Liaza, the hydraulic drive consists of a hydraulic pressure and hydraulic pump produced in Belarus in Borisov.
As far as the Russian Diesel
For economy and resource, new engines «Series 530» are not worse than imported motors. The stated resource of the YAMZ-534 at least 700 thousand km, Yamz-536 at least 900 thousand km.
At the very beginning of the production of new Yaroslavl diesel engines, the proportion of imported components and details was great. The cylinder block and the head of the block, the crankshaft was imported from Germany, part of the nodes and parts from China. The GAZ Group has developed a localization program, and now the casting of the block is produced in Nizhny Novgorod on gas. The piston group comes from the Federal Mogul plant in Naberezhnye Chelny or from the Kostroma plant «Motothetal», which uses technology, materials and design of the Piston of the German company Kolbenschmidt. If the steel crankshaft forgings arrived earlier from the German Thysssen Krupp AG, and the treatment was carried out on the YAMZ, now the harvesting of crankshafts supplies KAMAZ. Crankshaft liners, camshaft bushings are made on the Zavolzhsky Plant Bearing Slip. A part of the engine components produce near the Yaroslavl diesel equipment (Yazda), these are the MRM parts: camshaft, roller pushers, valve springs. Also on the yazda, the production of TNVD for the Common Rail system. The control unit supplies the Moscow firm «ITELMA». Turbochargers can also be used by Russian. In particular, the turbines make NGOs «Turbotechnika» from near Moscow Protvino. Localization of components of EMZ 530 engines is adjusted to 80%.
While Kmminz-Kama joint venture can not be conducive to such a high localization of Cummins ISB 6.7. At one of the automotive exhibition forums in the speech of the heads of the SP, it was said about 60% of localization. This feature of the Kama enterprise, since it is integrated into the structure of the international company Cummins. Not to mention Mercedes-Benz Motors imported from Germany, which are installed on MAZ brand buses. Also imported Yuchai engines are installed on VOLGABUS buses.