Our legislation is quite liberal in terms of the engine replacement during the repair of the car. About the possibility of simple engine replacement directly nothing says, but also to replace the engine seems to be not prohibited. This, naturally, affects the market of used engines. They are also called «contract» — the demand for them is stable for a good decade.
However, a rainbow picture with legislation spoil some nuances that alone forget or do not know at all, while others are not too hurry to remind …
Usually the idea of buying a «contract» motor arises due to the economic inappropriateness of the repair of the old engine — when it is or not subject to recovery, or the cost of its repair is almost equal to the purchase of a used motor. For example, the cost of the new block of cylinders, the head of the cylinder block, distribution shafts is not even dozens, but hundreds of thousands of rubles. The price of a new engine, for example, to a German car starts from 10-12 thousand dollars, and ends at all at all at 30-35 thousand. It can be considered differently — it is about a third of the cost of a new car.
On the other hand, a typical motor overhaul with a replacement of spare parts according to the results of a defective, subject to the safety and fitness of such «heavy» parts, as a block of cylinders, a crankshaft and a block head, as a rule, 30-50% more expensive than the average contract service unit. So very large temptation to buy a ready-made motor, «factory», «barely passed on European roads», and, of course, «just shot from the car that has fallen into an accident.»
It would seem that everything is simple and good — put such a motor instead of the failed «native» and rushed! However, the question immediately arises: whether such accidents are often found so that the car is new, and in an accident she got so well that only her rear part was injured?
In fact, it is almost the same fantasy as «a car from Europe with a mileage of no more than 60 thousand km.» You can say with confidence: there is a chance to get the engine, which can be just so, not looking, put, run and happily ride — no more than 50 to 50. And in a fully working condition and with a good resource — and less. So buy a «contract» motor, which is guaranteed to last long and takes at least 50-60 thousand km (less simply does not make sense from a financial point of view) is very difficult. Why? Let’s try to figure out.
Cheap. But is it «angry»?
To start, exclude from our analysis «Shirpotsky» Korean motors — there are many such cars, their engines are easily and relatively inexpensive, all parts, including crankshaft, block and cylinder head, inexpensive «on the secondary», and the chances of «getting» to serious problems It is noticeably less here (although there are exceptions). Let us focus primarily on modern European and Japanese production engines — they are mainly bought as «contract». The reason is simple: repair modern with any number of cylinders the engine is much more expensive (parts, the cost of work, including mechanical processing, etc.) than to buy a «contract». What is completely clear — the repair work is piece, and the engine is serial, and also «from the landfill», so the prices are diverged, and quite strongly, sometimes even at times.
Unfortunately, with repair is not all smooth. Not every motorist can be entrusted to expensive repairs. It is no secret that with the growth of the fleet of new cars, the engine overhaul is not too profitable or the station nor the customer.
It requires a long time, the availability of qualified personnel is tied to numerous suppliers and partners. Hence the additional risk to the client — to pay big money for repairs and not get expected.
Whether the contract «Contractor»!
However, first of all, we note is not low cost, but the fact that almost all «contract» engines are good «who are like». Although there are, of course, exceptions. For example, a 7-year-old engine from Japan may well have a cherished mileage of 50-60 thousand km due to the sharply increased tax on the «old age», i.e. Still quite a strong car disassembled part, and the motor sold. And just look at the card to understand — such a car did not have time to ride a lot.
But who will give a guarantee that the engine that was sold is really right from Japan? You can not exclude that the car was first brought to Vladivostok, there «died» to the complete «I can not» (the wear of all aggregates), and then the engine was laundered and sold, although there was no resource in it. This is especially true for old models for whom, perhaps all the «contracts» have long been over. Together with motors.
There is another problem, most often also peculiar to the «Japanese»: it seems, the motor is the same, the machine model is the same — and not suitable. The reason is this: there are many modifications of engines, including for the domestic market, differing by landing places, compounds, aggregates, etc. And here — how lucky …
If we consider the German motors, there are chances of getting a very problematic unit — aged and with the proceedable mileage — increase even stronger. It is no secret that on average in Germany cars are easily running on autobahn to 30 thousand km per year. And today’s motors today, the resource is actually quite low: if twenty years ago, 200 thousand km were only half a resource, now 150 thousand km is almost an entirely resource. Manufacturers can understand: Today the car serves an average of 3-5 years, for which it runs no more than 100-150 thousand km. So why spend money, increasing the cost, and make an excessively reliable and durable motor?
Therefore, the externally «fresh» engine is now not an indicator of its good internal state and high durability. After the sale and installation, it can very quickly fail. In addition, in Germany, he walked on flat, calm modes on autobars, and we immediately got into extreme operating conditions. After all, there is no resource left in it — the wear of the piston group and the gas distribution mechanism may have already achieved a critical level. And in some expensive motors manufactured by modern «aluminum» technologies, there may be more serious problems. So there is nothing surprising in the fact that in the cylinders just installed engine reduced compression and large oil consumption.
In addition, with expensive motors a very likely «hit» on the large-sized expensive elements. For example, for individual motors V8, the cost of a set of four hydrumystem of camshafts is more than 150 thousand rubles. And this is without work on their replacement — at the cost of the entire motor is about 150-200 thousand rubles. And if the gears of the balancing shaft are worn out? What if the drive gear «hangs» to the crankshaft? Then the price of «fresh» and «trouble-free» engine «just from the accident» will twice, if not three times. And it’s not a fact that everything else is better in it …
It turns out that the cost of the «contract» motor will need to add and the cost of new details plus the cost of work on partial disassembly assembly to replace them. And this is not at all cheaply, and the questions are already looming — is it worth the game of the candle, and how is the repair worse? In addition, it really, if the seller did not deceive, and the engine was removed from the car, visited the accident, instead of joy from a profitable purchase, get a «cat in a bag» with a bouquet of additional serious problems — cracked and microcracks of the pallet pallet, front and valve covers, After all, a strong blow when a collision could well get them. And since when hitting, a significant part of the load is perceived by the engine supports, cracks in the cylinder block in the places of fastening of the supports is quite normal.
So with the engine that «just from the accident», it is better not to risk at all.
Honorable … aggregate
Not only is the contract engine can be with a resource already developed and other hidden defects. There is one more complexity associated with the transportation and storage of the removed engine. Almost no one knows how much time has passed since its dismantling. Through what seasons its storage and transportation passed? And where was he kept all this time? If the motor endowed the temperature difference with open intake and exhaust channels, then condensate appears, and therefore corrosion. And if corrosion sat on the walls of the cylinders, then such a motor will take 10-20 thousand km at best. Rust will perform as abrasive, «killing» first of all piston rings.
Another unexpected trouble that lies the buyer is a detached Nagar, both in the combustion chambers and in oil cavities. As a result of storage at a temperature passing through zero, the nagar is peeling from the surface of combustion chambers, intake and outlet channels, from the valve plates and the walls of the crankcase. These loose particles are not only abrasive with all the consequences, but also a beautiful «pinch» of the grid of the oil worker in the crankcase. So the old engine stored for a long time and in improper conditions, almost guaranteed for a long time will not last.
If there are burdens or cavity from corrosion on the cylinder mirror, then without careful endoscopy, such defects do not reveal. The engine will seem to normally start and work, but only oil consumption will be a liter-other per 1000 km. Such examples are completely different, especially among popular 6- and 8-cylinder. And their price is quite considerable — from 200-250 thousand rubles. and higher…
If the motor flew over the cold cheese warehouse during the alternate temperatures, on the side, with not completely fused oil (and who will concentrate the «piece of iron» at 100-150 kg weighing on the rack in 2-3 rows to merge from it Oil residues?), It is practically guaranteed cluttered rings, turning oil into heavy fractions, changes in the properties of rubber in seals. That is, all gaskets and glands, including oil-challenged caps, can easily «cry» and flush at the first start.
As a result, the real picture with the «contract soldiers» is very far from ideal. Buyer cheap, but in practice a very expensive contract motor has a low chance to get a high-quality engine — practice shows no more than 30%. This is too much likely to succeed if you remember the price of the issue. And the practice confirms: there are cases when a more or less normal motor managed to get only from the second, and even third times. Although some owners have enviable stubbornness — she ride on the «contract» 10-20, discovered a serious problem and ran after another. And so in a circle a few times. Only while running, the cost of the wind overhaul has already exceeded, and much …
Cheap? It happens…
So what to do? First of all — not to hurry when «native» engine ordered a long time to live. It would be quite good at the beginning seriously examine the question — is it possible to repair the «native» engine? And if it is possible, what will he get up? And who can make such a repair?
And only if the repair is not possible, the risk is inadmissible or cost is much larger than the acquisition of used motor, it makes sense to think about the acquisition of a «contract» engine. But at the same time, as already mentioned, the likelihood of buying «Cat in a bag» is too high. And here, perhaps, the only way out is the inspection of the «contract» motor.
Almost all companies supplying Used engines give them a small warranty — from several days to several weeks. During this time, it is quite possible to carry out partial disassembly and check the general condition of the motor: if it is completely «killed», then return it to the seller, with the return of money or replacement to another. But it is better, of course, to entrust such inspection to the seller so that he himself made partial disassembly before selling.
And further so. If the engine is in good condition, then why after buying it does not make it a small «cosmetic» repair: for example, replace piston rings, glades, etc., if necessary? After all, the buyer puts the engine to his own car and must be sure that the motor will last long. Yes, and the work on the replacement of parts is much easier and cheaper to perform on the removal of the motor than by car.
Nevertheless, in any case, the car owner must be careful when buying a «contract» motor, to be prepared for the fact that an attempt to solve the problem from the first time may be unsuccessful, and remember a simple rule: cheap does not happen well. And quickly — too. And if it happens, it is rarely …
Judicial Expert, Candidate of Technical Sciences Motor Center «AB-Engineering»