Engineering as the most important component of the country’s automotive industry is the driver for the development of the autocomponent industry. Therefore, the emergence of new engine industries deepens to the localization of motorities, creates conditions for creating new autocomponent industries and in general further development of the real sector of the economy. However, even the launch of new projects for the release of diesel engines does not quite satisfy the requests of the domestic auto industry in this type of power units.
In the development of the domestic engine building industry, there is always much attention to the production of diesel engines. This practice has happened since Soviet times. Then in the domestic auto industry there was an imbalance between the passenger and freight car lighting.
In the USSR, the Yaroslavl School of Diesel Engineering was originally established. It was the production center of Yaroslavl Motor Plant (Avtodiesel). In the early 70s of the last century, when the construction of a giant auto plant in Naberezhnye Chelny began, Yaroslavl specialists developed and transferred technical documentation to KAMAZ for a new diesel engine that received the name of KAMAZ-740. So the history of the second center of the competence of a diesel station in the country began.
However, the needs of the national economy were much more than they could satisfy the manufacturers of domestic cargo machinery. Therefore, for such a large-scale «building of the century», like the Baikal-Amur Railway Magistral, a huge batch of German Magirus Deutz brand trucks from West German Ulma was purchased. Air cooling diesel engines installed on them very well have shown themselves during operation in the harsh conditions of Siberia and the Far East.
German engine brand Deutz V8 with a capacity of 230 liters. with. He possessed so outstanding technical characteristics that the USSR decided to buy a license for its production. For these purposes, the construction of a new engine plant in Kustana (Kazakhstan) was launched in the late 80s. It was planned to produce up to 40 thousand power units per year and equip them with a new family of Trucks URAL-43223. But after the collapse of the USSR, the company stopped existence. And the motors of the brand Deutz domestic production did not appear on the Ural trucks.
After the collapse of the USSR, two centers of diesel engine construction were left in the Russian Federation — Yaroslavl and Kamsky, located on Kamaz in Naberezhnye Chelny (Tatarstan).
Until now, at the Yaroslavl Motor Plant (according to Avtodiesel «) produce V-shaped diesel engines (YAMZ-236, YAMZ-238, etc.) for installation on cars, the customer of which is military department. These engines are designed in the distant 60s of the last century and comply with the Euro-0 standard. However, in the civil and commercial sphere, registration of new cars with such engines is impossible. Therefore, Yaroslavl engine builders managed to bring them to the norms of Euro-3 and even Euro-4. But endlessly bringing the development to the level of constantly tightening environmental norms is becoming more expensive. However, for the state defense order, the release of such morally outdated diesel engines will continue.
Today, in the model line of the Yaroslavl «Avtodiel» there is a power unit of the YAMZ-650, which is established on the class of heavy equipment, such as Minsk tractors and trucks of the MAZ brand, all-terrain vehicles and various brand techniques «Tonar». The history of this unit is even instructive.
Some time ago, the French automaker Renault Trucks moved under the control of the Swedish cargo giant Volvo Trucks. After that, the process of optimization and restructuring began, and the French turned out to be «superfluous», the license of which and acquired Yaroslavl.
We are talking about the Renault DCI-11 engine, with a capacity of 320-420 liters. s., At that time he satisfied Euro-3 standards. In the global practice of motor-building rare cases when the diesel engine is so simple. Only the example of the Austrian company SteeR comes to mind, which left the cargo segment. But their power unit strongly helped in the formation of diesel engines in China.
In turn, Yaroslavls, together with the English Engineering Company, Ricardo managed to bring the power DCI-11 to 450 liters. p., Improve its environmental characteristics to the norms of Euro-5. Now the Yaroslavl Motor of the YAMZ-650 series is well known on many models of the Minsk Automobile Plant, AZ «Ural», the Minsk Plant of Wheel Tractor, Domestic Company Tonar, etc. Today, the released family of heavy row diesel engines of the NMZ-650 with a working volume of 11-12 liters has a power range of 362-412 liters. with.
However, Diesel YAMZ-650 is foreign development, successfully transferred to Russian soil. Engineers Ricardo, with the help of which adaptation works were carried out, they know this engine very well: they at one time worked on it. In general, the center of competencies of this diesel is abroad. And the degree of localization of this diesel engine is low (about 20%).
Therefore, Yaroslavl engine builders work on the new YMZ-770 engine, which will be replaced by the «six hundred and fifties» family.
But still the main project and the main achievement of Yaroslavl engine builders is a new family of 4-, 6-cylinder row diesel engine of the YAMZ-530.
The roots of the NMZ-530 project go to the beginning of the 90s of the last century. Then domestic enterprises GAZ, ZMZ (Savolzhsky Motor Plant) and YAMZ agreed to create a diesel engine with a volume of 4 liters for buses of grooves and truck GAZ-3307. The project task lay the power of this power unit 135-140 liters. with. But due to the lack of sufficient work, the crisis 90s went slowly. In the period from 1999 to 2001, on the basis of the YIMZ-460 diesel engine, the engine was so called in those years — a series of three-, four- and six-cylinder diesel engines were developed that were subsequently called the NAME-530. In 2002-2003 In the holding of RusperomAwto, it was decided to contact the Austrian AVL company for technical audit and engine refinement. In early 2005, a group of specialists created a group of specialists, who, in collaboration with Austrians, worked on the new concept of the 530 family.
And only when the Yaroslavl «Avtodiesel» entered the GAZ Group, work on a new diesel engine was activated.
A ready-made sample was taken as the basis, its deep modernization was carried out in conjunction with the Engineering company AVL from Austria, so work on several phases were carried out much faster.
Initially, at a new factory, specially built in Yaroslavl, was planned to produce 110 thousand engines per year. But then, after the crisis of 2009, it was decided to reduce the production capacity of the enterprise to 40 thousand motors per year. However, the installed equipment allows the volume of production to 52 thousand engines per year, if you increase the number of shifts. But there is no such market demand yet and in the near future is not foreseen.
On the new platform on the outskirts of Yaroslavl in the period 2009-2011. A new plant was built, equipped with the latest technology. In December 2007, the leading European engineering companies signed contracts for the supply and installation of equipment for the mechanization of the block of cylinders, block head, etc.
Today, the main consumers of Yaroslavl diesel engines of the 530 series are assembly enterprises of the GAZ Group. This is Nizhny Novgorod gas, where the motor is installed on cars «Lawn Next», bus plants — Liaz, Paz, Kavz; Supplies are also carried out at the AZ «Ural», Belarusian «MAZ» and other enterprises of related industries of mechanical engineering.
How much is the Russian motor?
Today, the Yaroslavl enterprise is working on the localization of diesel engines of the 530 series. Over the past few years, great progress has been achieved in the translation of a diesel engine to domestic nodes and details. Now the degree of localization of new Yaroslavl motors exceeded 80%.
Until recently, all cast iron cast has been supplied from the German Fritz Winter Eisengieliei plant. This is a leading casting and details provider for the largest German automakers Daimler AG, BMW. Now the casting of blocks is localized on the Nizhny Novgorod «Gas». Also here mastered the casting of aluminum parts.
Piston group «Five hundred and thirtieth» — from two manufacturers: Kostroma Motothetal plant and Federal Mogul plant from Naberezhnye Chelny. Another major engine component — crankshaft. Previously, it was supplied from the factory of thissen Krupp, and the treatment was carried out on YAMZ. Now the harvesting of crankshafts supplies the metallurgical production of KAMAZ. In turn, the liners of the crankshaft, the camshaft bushings are made on the Zavolzhsky Plant of Slip Bearings. This is the most modern factory in the Russian Federation. He used to be part of ZMZ, and a few years ago, a Japanese company Daido Metall Co. was bought.
Part of the components of the engines is mastered on the Yaroslavl plant of diesel equipment (yazda). Here produced camshaft, roller pushers, valve springs, etc. It is important that now the release of the TNVD for the Common Rail system is also mastered.
Turbochargers are also Russian, turbines are mastered at the enterprise NPO Turbotechnology in the city of Protvino.
The family of medium-sized row diesel and gas engines of the YAMZ-530 has high technical indicators at the level of leading world analogues in economy, resource, compliance with environmental standards. A wide range is up to 400 modifications and complete sets with a high degree of unification — with a power range of 130-330 liters. with. (100-242 kW) provides installation on trucks and buses, special products, railway transport, excavators, high-drivers, tractors, etc. Today, the enterprise mastered the production of motors using compressed natural gas as fuel; Designed and presented on an experimental sample of the LIAZ-5292 bus engine operating on LNG.