On December 199, 1975, the first Kama diesel engine was designed from the conveyor of the plant of engines «KamAZ». From now on, it was the start of the country’s dieselization process.
Today, few people remember that the decisions of the next XXIV congress of the party were delivered to the strategic task in the automotive industry — to build a car plant on the banks of the car for the production of trucks and the production of diesel engines with a project capacity of 250 thousand engines. In addition to the actual stone trucks (KAMAZ’s design capacity of 150 thousand cars per year), the diesel engines of the Kama production were to be installed in the motor compartments of cargo and passenger equipment, that is, to launch the very dieselization, the need for the country’s leadership.
In those distant times, in the country, gasoline engines were installed on the entire passenger technique of domestic production, which were distinguished by voraciousness, so the Dieselization process was important for the country’s economy. After all, at one of the congresses of the party, such a slogan sounded: «The economy should be economical.»
And Kama diesel in this process should have played a decisive role. The LIAZ-677 LIAZ-375 gasoline motor was installed on the LIAZ-675 LIAZ-677 gasoline plant, which could eat more than 50 liters of fuel per 100 km of mileage. A gasoline motor was also put on the buses of Lviv bus LAZ-699 and LAZ-695. But with the start of the motor plant, Kamaz Diesels appeared in the motor compartments of new models of domestic bus construction — Liaz-5256 and LAZ-4202.
In those already distant years, the sample of a successful diesel bus was Hungarian cars «Ikarus», they were delivered annually several thousand pieces. At that time, they had a very progressive design. The body of the bus is a frameless fermented, welded from tubular profiles, mostly with a closed cross section. Raba-MAN D2156 diesel engines were installed in their engine compartment. In fact, they introduced compatriots with diesel buses. Today, the largest park «Ikarusov» in the amount of 47 pieces is still exploited in Yekaterinburg. Soon they will spike.
Modern Russian diesel
But all this remained in the past. The bus construction is the most «domestic» branch of the Russian automotive industry. The fact is that in June 2014, in response to the sanctions of Western countries, the Government of the Russian Federation issued a Resolution No. 656, where it was said about actually banning the import of foreign-made buses. This government decision has become a catalyst for the development of the bus industry. A new assembly building «Volgabas» near Vladimir was erected. It was decided to expand the production facilities of the NEFAZ plant to 3,000 buses per year, the subsidiary of KamAZ. True, in the Gas Group of such large-scale events is not planned.
Today, buses equipped with gasoline engines actually went down in history. Only one «Relic» — PAZ-3205 remained, which still can be ordered with the gasoline engine of the Volga factory ZMZ-52342.10, with a capacity of 122 hp
Today, with confidence, it is possible to state the fact that the industry’s dyselization is successfully completed. This suggests that the rate is 45 years ago was correctly chosen.
Our channel decided to see what diesel engines are installed today on domestic buses. And here we saw an interesting picture.
The main motor of the bus is nefhas, no, no, not
But the buses are nefhaz, which operate on compressed gas and which are followed by the Procurement Program of the New Passenger Technology under the National Project of BKAD2.0. Install WEICHAI WP7N6 engines.
In the segment of large urban buses, NEFAZ-5299 — the domestic leader, respectively, in this class the motor Cummins has become the main Russian diesel engine for buses.
But there are still applicants for this title. As you know, a powerful bus division has been created in the GAZ group, which contains Linkinsky, Pavlovsky and Kurgan bus factories. If you look at the products of Liaza, then here over the past years there has been a transition from motors of different manufacturers to a new diesel engine of the YAMZ-530 series. In the last decade and earlier in the engine compartment of urban liazi, besides KAMAZ diesel engines tried to install MAN, and Caterpillar engines, and Cummins. But the launch in Yaroslavl of the modern plant for the release of row diesel engines of the 530-series completed this leaps. Now the LIAZ-6213 bus-6213 bus establishes the most powerful 6-cylinder diesel engine YAMZ-53613, the developing capacity of 310 hp And the junior LIAZ-4292 put a 4-cylinder YAMZ-53403, which develops 210 hp
In motor compartments of semi-linked and fully low-base models
New buses of Pavlovsky Bus also completed the transition to 4-cylinder YAMZ-534. She touched this process and Kurgan bus.
The new domestic producer of VolgaBas buses has been established with the Chinese manufacturer of Yuchai diesel engines. But since this enterprise will soon switch to the structures of the combined machine-building group, which includes the Yaroslavl Motor Plant, it is possible to assume with a high share of confidence that, with time, Chinese diesel engines in the «VolgaBasakh produced» will be replaced by 4-, 6-cylinder Motors of YAMZ.
And you still need to mention one player of the Russian buses market — Minsk Automobile Plant. MAZ When the buses are released, has long made a bet on the German Mercedes-Benz Dviguns. Even when creating a new promising generation of MAZ-303 buses in their compartment there will be german motors. As a more affordable model of MAZ-303065 will be equipped with a 285-power engine Mercedes-Benz OM926LA ecological standard Euro-5, which is easier according to the design, has a smaller cost and must be cheaper in operation. Recall that for markets with more stringent requirements, the MAZ-303266 model with the MERCEDES-BENZ OM936LA engine, which develops the power of 300 hp
For buses of the current and past generations MAZ-103, MAZ-203 There are modifications not only with «Mercedes» engines, but also versions with Weichai motors and YAMZ.